Academic stress and its coping mechanisms

Stress is a barrier in having a harmonious connection with education. This study will make us knowledgeable about the factors of academic stress and what are its coping mechanisms that students used to manage their stress. Using these articles,  the researchers will have bases about the study. There are three types of stress. Time stress, anticipatory stress and situational stress. Some examples of coping mechanisms are seeking help from your family and asking advice from guidance counselor.


Saluyot and its uses

Scientific Name: Corchorus olitorius

Also knows as:
Saluyot (Tagalog), Jute, Jew’s mallow, Egyptian spinach,  jute mallow, bush okra, West African sorrel (En), Chang shouo huang ma (Ch). Krinkrin (Fr)

Saluyot (Corchorus olitorius) is an edible leafy vegetable that is a member of the  genus Corchorus, classified under the subfamily Grewioideae of the family Malvaceae. Saluyot is widely found in tropical and subtropical areas from Asia to Africa valued as food and for its strong fiber. Saluyot has long been used as food staple since ancient times by Jewish people and Egyptians hence derived its English names Jew’s mallow and Egyptian spinach.

Saluyot leaves are very nutritious, it is rich in calcium, iron, protein, vitamin A, C and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and dietary fibers.  Saluyot is usually cooked as stew, forming a thick slimy syrup similar in consistency to okra usually taken with rice or other starchy staple.

Saluyot can almost grow anywhere in the Philippines. Saluyot is a hardy plant that is resistant to pests and requires little care. It can be found in the wild as it can also be grown in a farm.

Saluyot plants are tall, reaching 2-4 meters in height, having only a few side branches. Saluyot  leaves are alternate, simple, lanceolate, about 5-15 cm in length tapering to a pointed tip and has finely serrated margin. Saluyot flowers are yellow about 2-3 cm wide with five petals. The fruit is capsule like with plenty of small seeds inside.

Saluyot | Corchorus olitorius Medicinal Uses

Saluyot in Traditional and Folkloric Medicine

  • Saluyot being rich in vitamins and minerals generally promotes good health and well-being.
  • Saluyot being rich in vitamin A can provide health benefits for good eyesight.
  • Saluyot contains vitamin E and other antioxidants. It is said to prevent wrinkles and promote youthful looking skin.
  • Saluyot is used to treat inflammation and pain such as arthritis , headache, stomach ache and others.
  • Saluyot being rich in fiber helps to control blood pressure, cholesterol build-up, diabetes and prevents heart disease.
  • Saluyot leaves are rich in fiber and its slimy consistency when cooked is used to treat various digestive problems such as diarrhea, stomach ache, dysentery, constipation and ulcers.
  • It is also claimed that together with other herbs it can cure cancer.

Science Based Health Benefits from Saluyot | Corchorus olitorius Herbal Medicine

Saluyot Mechanism of action in disease treatment and prevention

Phenolic antioxidants from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L.

Corchorus olitorius leaves contains six phenolic antioxidative compounds The contents of these phenolic compounds, were determined, and their antioxidative activities were measured using the radical generator-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results obtained showed that 5-caffeoylquinic acid was a predominant phenolic antioxidant in Corchorus  olitorius leaves. Source: Journal of  Agricultural  Food Chemistry. (1999 Oct)

Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius (Saluyot leaf extract)

A study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats showed that sambong extract posses gastroprotection in the experimental groups and medical benefits were comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. (2013 Aug)

Corchorus olitorius (jute) extract induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human multiple myeloma cells (ARH-77).

A study investigated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leaf extracts (LE) and seed extracts (SE) of the Corchorus olitorius on the multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells. Results have showed that both Saluyt leaf and seed extracts exerted cytotoxic effects on cells and the results of the comet assay revealed that the extracts induced genotoxic damage on ARH-77 cells. The leaf and seed extract treatments indicated that genotoxic damage significantly increased with increasing concentrations at relevant cytotoxic concentrations. Source: Pharmaceutical Biology. (2013 Jun)

Polyphenolic compounds with anti-tumour potential from Corchorus olitorius (L.)

Chromatographic fractionation of the methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius (L.) yielded two polyphenolic compounds. The compounds when tested possess mild cytotoxic activity which was significant against HeLa cells at ⩾800μM. The plant Corchorus olitorius therefore represents a potential source of natural ‘lead’ compounds with anti-tumour potential. Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. (2016 Aug)

Health Benefits of Saluyot for Diabetes

A study conducted in Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, India reported that by  administering powdered Saluyot supplements to pregnant rats, both the mother and the fetus exhibited an increased resistance in diabetes induced oxidative stress versus a control group. The results suggest that Saluyot supplementation during pregnancy may provide beneficial effects against diabetes induced oxidative stress both for the mother and the fetus. (Journal of Diabetes. March 2013: Dietary supplementation with Ipomoea aquatica attenuates maternal and fetal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats)

Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Corchorus olitorius aqueous extract

A study was conducted to determine the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Corchorus olitorius root in Wistar rats. The results showed that Corchorus olitorius root extract (p<0.05) decreased the elevated temperature and  inflammation compared with the control group.This study suggests that Corchorus olitorius root is another good source of phytomedicine that can be used effectively to treat inflammation and pyrexia that accompany some diseases. Source: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. (2015 Jul)

Helath Benefits of Saluyot Against Liver Disease

The Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya in Malaysia conducted a study on the protective action of Saluyot against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats to determine if Saluyot can indeed help treat jaundice. An ethanol extract of Saluyot has been administered to rats subjected to liver damage by thioacetamide. Results had shown that the rats when compared to a control group showed resistance against liver lesions, cell necrosis and inflammation. The study further suggests that the protective effect of Saluyot extract  in chemical-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of Saluyot for the treatment of liver disorders. (Molecules. 2012: Ipomoea aquatica extract shows protective action against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity).

– Medical Health Guide

Bitter but Helpful

Scientific Name: Momordica charantia

Other names:

Ampalaya, Bitter melon, papailla, melao de sao caetano, bittergourd, sorosi, a’jayib al maasi, assorossie, balsam apple, balsam pear, chin li chih, ejinrin gule khandan, fu-kua, karela, k’u kua kurela, kor-kuey, ku gua, lai p’u t’ao, pava-aki, salsamino, sorci, sorossi, sorossie, sorossies, pare, peria laut, peria

Ampalaya Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) also known as Bitter Melon is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in the Amazon, Carribean, South east Asia such as Philippines for its edible fruit. Ampalaya or bitter melon also known as bitter gourd as the name implies has a bitter taste due to the presence of momordicin, and is believed to be among the most bitter of all vegetables.

Ampalaya Bitter Melon is a climbing vine that grows up to 5m, with tendrils up to 20cm. long. Amplaya leaves are heart-shaped, 5-10 cm across, cut into 5-7 lobes. Each Ampalaya Bitter Melon plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. Ampalaya bears fleshy green fruit, oblong shaped with pointed ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds. Ampalaya seeds are flat with ruminated margins.

Ampalaya Traditional Medicinal Uses and Health benefits

Ampalaya has a long history of medical usage and has a long list of folkloric health benefits for the following conditions.

Diabetes. Ampalaya or bitter gourd is a widely used herbal remedy to lower the blood sugar levels for diabetic patients.

Analgesic. The juice of Amplaya is used to alleviate symptoms of fever, headache and body pains.

Eye problems. Amplaya juice is also used to treat eye related problems that include sty and sore eyes. It is thought to improve eyesight and prevents the development of cataract.

Respiratory ailments. The juice from amplaya fruit and leaves are used to treat various respiratory problems that may include, asthma, wheezing cough, bronchitis and pharyngitis.

Hair and scalp problems. Ampalaya or bitter gourd has been used to treat various hair and scalp problems that may include hair loss, dry scalp, lice and pimples on the scalp.

Weight loss. Ampalaya is also used to promote body metabolism and the burning of fats thus it is valued as a weight loss supplement.

Source of energy. The vitamins and mineral found in ampalaya is considered as a stamina builder that combats fatigue.

Antioxidant. Amplaya is also considered as a potent anti-oxidant acitivity that counters the oxidation of free radicals that is the cause of cancer.

Stomach problems. Ampalaya leaf extract is a folkloric remedy for various stomach ache and problems that include indigestion, dyspepsia, parasite infestation, diarrhea and constipation.

Hepatoprotection activity. Ampalaya is used as a herbal remedy to protect the liver from damage due to intake of alcohol and other harmful substances.

Skin problems. Ampalaya is crushed or rubbed over the skin to alleviate symptoms of psoriasis, ringworm, athlete’s foot, wounds, burns and ulcers.

Boosts the immune system.  Ampalaya is also used to boost the immune system and as a supplement to build body resistance during sickness.

HIV virus. Ampalaya is also being considered as treatment ot viral diseases that include HIV, malaria, chicken fox and measles.

Menopause. Ampalaya tea is taken as a remedy for pain and discomfort associated to menopause.

Anti-inflammatory activity. Ampalaya leaf extract combined with coconut oil is used to alleviate inflammation and pain associated to gout, arthritis, rheumatism and other body pains.

Cholesterol control. Ampalaya is also widely consumed to lower the cholesterol level in the blood that helps to prevent the build up of plaque along the arterial walls.

Hemorrhoids. Ampalaya is used as astringent to treat hemorrhoids.

Contraceptive. Ampalaya has been used in folkloric medicine as an abortificient and as a contraceptive to prevent pregnancy.

– Medical Health Guide

Tanglad as Medicine

Scientific Name: Cymbopogon citratus

Also knows as:

Brazil: Capim-cidrao, Capim-santo; Egypt: tanglad; English: tanglad, Citronella, Squinant; Ethiopia: Tej-sar Hindi: Sera, Verveine; Indonesian: Sereh; Italian: Cimbopogone; Malaysia: Sakumau; Mexico: Zacate limon; Swedish: Citrongräss; Thailand: Ta-khrai; Turkish: Limon out; USA and UK: Citronella

Tanglad (Cymbopogon citratus), is a native herb from warm regions such as India, Philippines and Malaysia, is widely used in Asian cooking and is an ingredient in many Thai and Vietnamese foods. Tanglad use in cooking has become popular in the Caribbean and in the United States for its aromatic citrus flavor with a trace of ginger.

Tanglad is a member of a specie of grass that grows to as high as 1 meter with leaves of 1 to 1.5 centimeters in width that grows from a stalk of about 30 to 80 cm long with bulbous lower end. Tanglad is a perennial and tufted grass that is commercially cultivated in Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and China. tanglad is also cultivated in United States specifically in California and Florida. Propagation is by dividing the root clumps.

Tanglad oil has a lemony, sweet smell and is dark yellow to amber and reddish in color that is extracted by distillation. Tanglad is also known as ‘choomana poolu’ and is also referred to as ‘Indian Verbena’ or ‘Indian M`elissa oil’. tanglad oil is a valuable ingredient in cosmetics, perfumes and as fragrances for soaps and insect repellants.

Tanglad is reportedly has a wide variety of therapeutic application and health benefits. With limited research and studies conducted on humans, tanglad’s effectiveness is based mainly on the results from animal and laboratory studies as well as its reputation as a folk remedy.

Tanglad Traditional Medicinal Uses

Tanglad is largely used in traditional herbal medicine for various conditions.

Tanglad as herbal Tea: (Taken 1 cup every 8 hours)

  • for gastrointestinal problems stomachaches,
  • diarrhea, gas, bowel spasms, vomiting,
  • fever, the flu, and headaches

Tanglad oil mixed with other essential oils such as coconut oil is used as a liniment for

  • back pains,
  • rheumatism,
  • neuralgia, sprains and
  • other body pains.

Tanglad oil mixed with other essential oils such as lavender or jasmine oil

  • used in baths or vapor scents, can revitalize the body and relieve the symptoms of jet lag, headaches, anxiety and stress related exhaustion.

Tanglad is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to treat fevers and infectious illnesses.

Tanglad is also used in Chinese medicine to treat colds and rheumatism..

To treat circulatory disorders, some authorities recommend rubbing a few drops of tanglad oil on the skin of affected areas; it is believed to work by improving blood flow.

Tanglad has natural anti-microbial properties, is an antiseptic, suitable for use on various types of skin infections, usually as a wash or compress, and is especially effective on ringworm, infected sores. Acne and athlete’s foot

Tanglad is effective in killing cancer cells.

It is useful with respiratory infections such as sore throats, laryngitis and fever and helps prevent spreading of infectious diseases.

Tanglad is also used as an insect repellant. It helps to keep pets clean of fleas, ticks and lice.

In Asia and Africa, tanglad is used as antiseptic, antitussive, and anti-rheumatic and to treat backache, sprains, and hemoptysis. Infusions of tanglad leaves are used in alternative medicine as sedative, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory.

In some African countries, Tanglad is used to treat diabetes.

– Medical Health Guide

Mabuhay Makabuhay!

Scientific Name: Tinospora cordifolia

Also knows as:

Makabuhay (Tagalog), Heavenly elixir (English), Guduchi, Gulancha Tinospora (India); Punjabi: Gllow, Telugu: Tippa-teega, Tamil: Shindilakodi, Malayalam: Amruthu, Chittamruthu, Kannada: Amrutha balli, Khmer: bândaul pich, Sinhala: Rasakinda, Thai: boraphét, Pali: galocī, Hindi:geloy, Gujarati: galac, garo, Sanskrit: guduchi, amrta, cinnodbhava, Bengali: Gulancha, Marathi: Guduchi, gulvel, Odia: Guluchi.

Makabuhay plant (Tinospora Cordifolia) also popularly known as Indian Guduchi, giloya or Heavenly elixir is a native plant from tropical and subtropical rainforests in the Far East such as in India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

Makabuhay as it is called in the Philippines has a long history of medicinal use in India also called Guduchi. Makabuhay has long been used in Ayurveda medicine (traditional medicine in India) for thousands of years. Ayurvedic practitioners in India used Makabuhay to promote longevity, prevent diseases and to treat various illnesses from arthritis to treatment of cancer.

In the Philippines, Makabuhay plant extract is traditionally combined with coconut oil to treat rheumatism and arthritis, abdominal pains (kabag), scabies, skin ulcers and others.

Makabuhay can be found in wild forests and can be identified by its heart shaped leaves. Makabuhay is a shrub whose aerial roots climb other trees usually neem or mango trees. Makabuhay plant has succulent bark that is creamy white to grey in colour; it has deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It has a sweet-acidic-bitter taste. Makabuhay has yellow flowers, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Makabuhay bears fruits that are drupes, turning red as it ripens.

Makabuhay (Tinospora cordifolia) contains many chemicals that are known to have antioxidant activities while a few can even fight cancer cells in animal studies.  However, most of the scientific studies that are made on the medicinal uses of Makabuhay are limited to animals or in test tubes.  Scientific studies on humans are insufficient

Makabuhay Traditional Medicinal Uses

Makabuhay is largely used in traditional herbal medicine for various conditions.

  • Makabuhay roots, stems and leaves are used as herbal treatment for fevers, malaria. Makabuhay leaves and roots are pounded then dissolved in cold water. Applied with a soft cloth over the nape, forehead, underarms and other body parts to bring down the body temperature.
  • Makabuhay poultice is used to treat gout, arthritis, and rheumatism by reducing pain and edema.
  • Makabuhay is used to treat skin diseases (athlete’s foot, scabies, etc.), promotes wound healing and alleviate skin itching.
  • Makabuhay tonic is believed to promote overall good health and longevity, improves memory, improves skin tone and texture, and provides energy.
  • Makabuhay tonic is also used to treat fever and malaria.
  • Makabuhay tonic is used to treat gastrointestinal and digestive problems, which includes diarrhea, hyperacidity, abdominal pains, gas pains (kabag), vomiting, dyspepsia, dysentery, colitis, constipation, loss of appetite and even worm infestation.
  • Makabuhay is also used in the treatment of diabetes, heart problems, hepatitis, anemia, impotence, tuberculosis, jaundice,

Other Scientific Studies Relating to Makabuhay (Tinospora cordifolia)

Diabetes and Tinospora Cordifolia

A research conducted in the Indian Medicine Research Laboratory in Sri Ramachandra University, studied the mechanism of the active ingredients of Tinospora cordifolia against key marker cells of insulin dependent glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) and the predominant protein that influences glucose metabolism. According to results, the Glut-4 and the dominant protein were modulated by Tinospora cordifolia, Moreover, the uptake of glucose was likewise mediated suggesting the anti-diabetic properties of TC compounds. (Phytomedicine Feb 2013: Anti-diabetic Property of Tinospora Cordifolia)

Anti-Radiation Properties of Tinospora Cordifolia

In a clinical report from the Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory of the University of Rajasthan, India, the anti-radiation property of Tinospora cordifolia has been positively identified.  In the study of a group of male mice that was subjected to gamma radiation, results have shown that those pre-treated with Tinospora cordifolia extracts exhibited less testicular lesions as compared to a control group. This suggests the radiation protective activity of Tinospora cordifolia in testicular radiation induced lesions. (eCAM 2011: Radiation-induced Testicular Injury and its Amelioration by Tinospora Cordifolia Extract)

Anti-Cancer Properties of Tinospora cordifolia

The Division of Ethnopharmacology of Loyola College in India conducted a study on the effects of Tinospora cordifolia extracts against induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats to determine its potential use in cancer therapy. Results have shown that those treated with Tinospora cordifolia extracts (TCE) exhibited an increased level of antioxidants and detoxification enzymes, and decreased serum transaminase level and hepatic marker enzymes to near normal. TCE likewise reduced tumor incidence and reversed the damaged hepatocytes to normal. The study concludes that TCE exhibits preventive effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and further suggests that Tinospora cordifolia extract can be a potent chemopreventive drug for HCC. (Investigational New Drugs, August 2011: Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma)

Tinospora cordifolia activity against Allergy

The efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract in patients of allergic rhinitis was assessed in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial in the Department of Pharmacology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, India. Results have shown that those treated with Tinospora cordifolia extracts exhibited less symptoms as against those who were not. The statistical results indicated a significant difference that confirms the effectiveness of Tinospora  cordifolia against allergic rhinitis. (Journal of Ethnopharmacology. January 2005: Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis)

Effects of Tinospora cordifolia to Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis

The Division of Endocrinology, University of Göttingen in Germany conducted a laboratory investigation on the effects of beta-Ecdysone (ECD), a steroid found in Tinospora cordifolia extract on joints, epiphyseal cartilage and trabecular tissues in rats. The study has shown that rats subjected to treatment of ECD have developed thicker joint cartilage and thicker epiphyseal growth plate. The study suggests that Tinospora cordifolia has antiosteoporotic effects and may be of value in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis which is of increasing importance due to aging and obesity among individuals. (Phytomedicine, April 2010: Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats).

– Medical Health Guide

Ginger: Only a Spice

Scientific name: Zingiber officinale

Also Known as:
Angay (Pamp.) kunik (Ibn.) Curcuma xanthorrhiza Naves Dilaw (Tag.) Lampuyang (P. Bis.) Dulaw (S.L. Bis.) Lawag (Sub.) Kalabaga (Bis.) Luyang-dilaw (Tag.) Kalawag (Mbo., Bis.) Pangar (Pamp.) Kalauag (Mbo., Bis.) Pangas (Pamp.) Kinamboy (Bis.) Parak (Kuy.) Kinamboi (Bis.) Salampawyan (Bag.) Kulalo (Bis.) Salampauyan (Bag.) Kulyaw (Ilk.) Turmeric Kunig (Ilk.) Yu-chin (Chin.) Long tumeric (Engl.)

Luya, Luyang Dilaw or Ginger, It is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeic, cardamom, and galangal.. Luya or Ginger has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes.

Luya, luyang dilaw or ginger is an erect, smooth plant with thickened and aromatic rootstocks. Luya or ginger has Leafy stems that are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Ginger Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15-25 cm long, and 2 cm wide or less. Luya scape from rootstock is erect, 15-25 cm high, covered with imbricate bracts. Calyx is 1 cm long. Corolla is greenish-yellow with a tube less than 2 cm long .

The taste of luyang dilaw or ginger is distinct, brought about by the zingerone and shogoal substances that it has, giving the plant its pungent properties. As herbal medicine, Luyang Dilaw has long been used as a cold, cough, fever, and sore throat remedy.

Ginger / Luya Medicinal Uses

Ginger / Luya in Traditional and Folkloric Medicine

luynag dilawLuya or ginger has been used as herbal medicine in many cultures for hundreds of years, Luya or ginger is claimed to have many medicinal value, from antibacterial, anti- inflamatory to anti nausea and treatment of sore throat.

Luya or ginger is popularly used for sore throat prevention and treatment. Luya is also widely used as herbal medicine to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness and also being used for treatment of nausea associated in cancer chemotherapy. Luya or ginger is also used as support against inflamatory associated with arthritis and rhematisms.. Luya or ginger is also used as digestive aid for mild stomach upset, to lower cholesterol level, anti viral and anti bacterial properties and for the treatment of cancer.

Science Based Health Benefits from Ginger / Luya

Ginger / Luya Mechanism of action in disease prevention

Ginger or luya have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine , a few of these health benefits are listed below as confirmed by evidence based studies.

Ginger is used to relieve headache, migraine and fever.

Ginger is reported in Ayurvedic and Tibb systems of medicine to be useful in neurological disorders. It is proposed that administration of ginger may exert abortive and prophylactic effects in migraine headache without any side-effects. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Jul 1990)

Ginger oil as antibacterial and used to treat infections.

Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. Source:  Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (Aug 2012)

Ginger is a good herbal cure for cancer namely, cancer of the colon, ovary or intestines.

A study published in American Journal of Cancer Research (Sep 2013) reported that ginger root extracts containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro that is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen and a definite cause of gastric cancer in humans and this activity may also contribute to its chemopreventative effects .

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

The study oral ginger supplementation ameliorated inflammation through reduction in levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP concentrations in blood samples of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Regarding negligible side effects of ginger, it may be a good remedy for diabetic patients to diminish the risk of some secondary chronic complications. Source: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin (2013 Dec)

Anti-oxidative stress effects

The overall evaluation of one study concludes that both spices ginger and cumin have good antioxidant potential, particularly fresh ginger. Methanol extracts of all the samples were found to have better antioxidant action than the n-hexane extracts. There was also a good correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the non-volatile extracts. Source: Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Molecules. 2010

Being anti inflammatory, it has health benefits for Arthritis, Rheumatism, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, back pain and other body pains.

An experiment investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the ginger constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, Results have shown that 12-DHGD treatment inhibited the LPS-stimulated increase in iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels and  is found to be  a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediator production in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Source: Phytotherapy Research. (2013 Aug);

Anti Coagulation activity of Ginger extract: Not sufficiently established.

One clinical study published as “Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005” investigated the interaction between ginger and warfarin, This study found no significant change to patient INR when ginger was administered for seven days. This is partially corroborated by the results of a study of Wistar rats in which a proprietary ginger formulation, in combination with warfarin, had no additive effect on whole blood clotting time.

– Medical Health Guide

Not Only a Fruit

Scientific Name: Persea americana

Common Name: Avocado, Alligator Pear (English); Aguacate, Palta (Spanish)

The fruit of Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is an edible fruit from Central America which is easily adaptable in tropical regions. The avocado has an olive-green peel and thick pale yellow pulp that is rich in fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, capric, and myristic acids. Avocado is normally used for human consumption, but it also known to provide many health benefits thus it is used in herbal medicine in Mexico and elsewhere in the world

The Avocado tree (Persea Americana) is an evergreen tree that is native to Central and South America. Avocado is classified as a flowering plant of Lauraceae family. Avocado can grow to heights of 40 to 80 feet and is well branched forming a broad tree.

Avocado is highly valued for its fruit and oil. Avocado is widely cultivated in southern American regions and was introduced in other countries with tropical climates.

The popular variety in the Untied States are grown in California and Florida. Other popular varieties are from Mexico, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and from west India. Avocado is commercially cultivated in Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Malyasia, Sri Lanka, Japan, China, Spain, Palestine, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand,, and Hawaii.

Avocado leaves are alternate, glossy, elliptic or oval in shape, 3 to 10 inches long and dark green with paler veins. The Guatemalan and Mexican varieties are anise scented and are used for its medicinal properties, while other varieties are scentless. Avocado leaves contains high level of oil, shed its leaves every 2 to 3 years.

Avocado flowers are small, greenish, and perfect (has both male and female parts). Avocado flowers appear in January – March before the first seasonal growth. The pale-green or yellow-green flowers are borne profusely in racemes near the branch tips. They lack petals but have 2 whorls of 3 perianth lobes, more or less pubescent, and 9 stamens with 2 basal orange nectar glands.

The avocado fruit is oblong resembling a pear shape, that is about 10 to 30 cm long and about 12 to 16 cm wide. The skin of the avocado fruit may vary in texture and color. The skin may be yellow-green, deep-green, reddish-purple, purple or almost black, and  sometimes speckled with tiny yellow dots.. The skin may be pliable to woody, smooth to rough, The flesh of the fruit is greenish yellow to bright yellow when ripe with buttery consistency. In some varieties of avocado the flesh may be fibrous. The avocado fruit has one large oblate, round or conical ovoid seed which constitutes 15 to 25% of the fruit weight. Avocado seed is coated with two brown thin papery layer that is lightly attached to its ivory colored core.. Avocado fruits range from 150 grams to more than a kilo in weight.

Avocado Traditional Medicinal Uses and Health benefits

Avocado in Traditional and Folkloric Medicine For Skin Problems

Avocado has long been used in traditional medicine by various cultures, Widely known health benefits include the following:

  • Avocado pulp is used to treat wounds with pus,
  • Decoction from avocado seeds is used as mouthwash and to relieve toothaches,
  • Avocado pulp is used to treat small cuts and wounds,
  • Decoction from pulp, bark and leaves are used to promote menstruation,
  • Avocado ointment from pulverized seeds used to treat skin irritation,
  • Grounded avocado seeds and bark are mixed with oil to relieve pain associated with rheumatism,
  • Avocado flesh us used to relieve pain and itchiness caused by sunburn.

– Medical Health Guide